Friday, January 4, 2013

"ოქროს საწმისის” სახისმეტყველება



      argonavtebis miTologiuri versia uZvelesia  da win uswrebs troas Tqmulebas. mas Zv.w.II aTaswleulis I naxevriT aTariReben.
 miuxedavad siZvelisa, “argonavtikisa” da “oqros sawmisis” Tema ukvdavia. Semdgom saukuneebSi da dResac fiqris, gansjisa da aRmafrenis wyaros warmoadgens.
    argonavtika” antikuri xanis mwerlobis dauSretel wyarod iqca, romelic mTlianad an epizodebis saxiT safuZvlad daedo mraval literaturul qmnilebas. maT Soris, mxatvruli TvalsazrisiT umTavresia homerosis “iliada” da “odisea (Zv.w.XII-VIIss.), evripides “medea” (Zv.w.Vs.), apolonios rodoselis “argonavtika” (Zv.w.IIIs.), romaeli poetis valerius flakusis amave saxelwodebis poema (I saukune) da mravali sxva. farTod aisaxa argonavtebis motivebi saxviT xelovnebaSi, musikasa da sxva.  
    mudmiv interess iwvevs oqros sawmisis raobis garkveva. aRniSnuli Temis irgvliv interess gulgrili arc antikuri xanis berZen_romaeli avtorebi dautovebia. maTi azriT, es iyo tyavze dawerili tabudadebuli saidumlo cnoba kolxuri meTodiT oqros miRebis Sesaxeb.
    straboni (Zv.w.Is.) Tavis geografiul TxzulebaSi werda, rom svaneTSi mdinareebs CamoaqvT oqro, rasac svanebi daxvretili varclebiTa da bewviani tyavebiT agroveben. aqedan gavrcelda miTi oqros sawmisian tyavze.
     pliniusis (Is.) cnobiT, kavkasiis mTebSi cxovroben daumorCilebeli svanebi, romlebic ewevian oqros mopovebas, isini cnobilni arian TavianTi oqros sawmisebiT.  
     apiane (IIs.) “romis istoriis” XII wignSi (“miTridates omebis istoria”) wers: kavkasionidan mraval nakaduls uCinari oqros qviSa Camoaqvs. garSemo mcxovreblebi nakadSi xSirbewvian cxvris tyavebs deben da maTze daleqil qviSas agroveben. swored amgvari iyo aietis oqros sawmisi.
    aseve arsebobs mosazreba “oqros sawmisis” e.w kvirbebTanTan dakavSirebisa. kvirbebis Taobaze gadmocema cnobili xdeba apolonios rodoselis (Zv.w.IIIs.) “argonavtikidan“. romelic gvamcnobs, rodesac berZnebma kolxeTSi imogzaures, im dros kolxebs Senaxuli hqondaT TavianTi winaprebis mier naweri kvirbebi (anu rukebi), romelzedac dedamiwis irgvliv samogzaurod zRvis da xmeleTis yvela gza da sazRvari iyo naCvenebi. rogorc Cans, kolxeTSi arsebuli es “naweri” rukebi, Zalian Zveli iyo, radgan kolxebi maT winaparTa danatovar relikviebad miiCnevdnen da sagangebod inaxavdnen.
    zemoT moyvanili yvela axsna “oqros sawmisis” mniSvnelobisa, praqtikuli mizniTaa gansazRvruli da ara simbolur enaze axsnili. miuxedavad imisa, rom saqme gvaqvs miTologiasTan, romlis miRma yovelTvis sakraluri da paradigmulia sagulisxmebeli.




cxvari, “oqros sawmisis” personifikaciaa. misis simboluri arsi simdidris, siuxvis, Zala-uflebis sazrisiT ganisazRvreba. amasTan, igi uZvelesi sakulto simbolo _ keTili sawyisicaa da xSirad gvxvdeba rogorc magiuri niSani: fibulebze, gemmebze, beWdebze da a.S. suraTze naCvenebi oqrosZewkvis mzgavsad avgarozis zardxSiT da sanelsacxebliT.

(armazisxevi II s.)

“oqros sawmisis” legendis mixedviT, orqomenis mefis, aTamantis vaJi _ friqse da qaliSvili _ hele avi dedinacvlis inos veragobisagan dasacavad dedam, qalRmerTma nefelem saberZneTidan gaxizna mfrinavi da adamianis xmiT mosaubre, oqrosmatyliani, RvTiuri verZis meSveobiT. friqse (hele zRvaSi Cavarda) verZma aiaSi (kolxeTSi) miiyvana. kolxTa mefe aietma, heliosis (mzis) Zem,  ltolvili ufliswuli Seifara. friqsem ki verZi msxverplad Seswira zevss.  
miTis aRniSnuli pasaJidan naTlad Cans, rom oqrosmatyliani verZi aris “gantevebis vaci”, romelic sakuTari nebiT Seewira zevss (berZnuli miTologiiT RmerTebis RmerTs) friqses “keTildReobis” sanacvlod.
   
     “gantevebis vacis” idea daculia Zvel aRTqmaSi mama abraamis (xalxTa mama) msxverplSewirvis epizodSi. abraamma RvTis brZanebiT, morias mTaze. qvis sakurTxeveli (samsxverplo) aago, SeSa daudo da zed Tavisi  erTaderTi Ze isaaki daawvina, Tumca Semdeg, uflisve gangebiT isaakis sanacvlod saswaulebrivad movlenili verZi Seiwira, srulnayofier msxverplad (είς όλοκαρπωσιαν).  rac winaswarmetyvelurad  moaswavebda, rom verZis wil Seiwireboda qristes ubiwo sxeuli da kravis mzgavsad daikvleboda igi, adamianTa codvebis sanacvlod. dasaklavad  waiyvanes rogorc kravinaTqvamia winaswarmetyvelis sityvebSi (esaia, III. 7).   
amdenad, kravi,  wminda werilSi uflis simboluri saxea, romelic mama abraamis batknis mzgavsad daikla adamis modgmis codvaTa gamosaxsnelad, misi sisxliT gaxda SesaZlebeli codvaTa ufskrulidan kacobriobis gamosyidva. TviT qristem msxverplad miuZRvna Tavi RmerTsa da mamas, rodesac tarigis mzgavsad Seiwira misi sxeuli.
     davubrundeT “oqros sawmisis” Temas. sad iqna waRebuli zevss Sewiruli cxvris oqrosmatyliani tyavi? miTis Tanaxmad, igi friqsem kolxeTis mefes uboZa, romelic kolxTa keTildReobis garanti gaxda. mefe aietma Zvifasi ZRveni mdinare fasisis (rioni) napirze, aresis (omis RmerTi berZnul miTosSi) WalaSi, did muxaze Camohkida da mcvelad gveleSapi (piToni, didi gveli) miuCina.



    Tuki uflis simboluri saxe samsxverplo verZia, maSin qristes ukerveli kvarTis simboluri analogi unda iyos “oqros sawmisi”. 
      gadmocemis Tanaxmad, jvarcmis dRes wili iqna nayari qristes ukervel kvarTze. kvarTis Sesaxeb upirvelesi cnobebi wminda werilSi Cndeba. sainteresoa is faqtic, rom axali aRTqma qristes samoselsa (Himatia) da kvarTs (Chiton) gamijnavs erTmaneTisgan.

       cnobilia, rom qristes samoseli oTx nawilad gayes da mis jvarcmaSi monawile TviToeulma erma TiTo nawili miiRo, xolo kvarTi, romelic RvTismSoblis xeliT iyo naqsovi da mas ieso mTeli sicocxlis manZilze atarebda, kenWisyris safuZvelze gadasces qarTvel ebraelebs _ eliozsa da longinozs, romlebmac igi  ierusalimidan samSobloSi CamoabrZanes da mcxeTaSi daabrZanes. mdinareebis mtkvrisa da aragvis SesayarTan, iq sadac dRes sveticxovlis wminda taZari mdebareobs.


     swored am faqtis gamo mcxeTa meore irusalimad iwoda. qarTvelTa rwmena kvarTis adgilsamyofelisadmi imdenad Rrma da erTsulovani iyo, rom qarTvelma mefeebma samefo gerbis ZiriTadi nawili swored am siwmindes dauTmes.
   
       SemTxveviTi ar aris arc is garemoeba,  rom aietma oqros sawmiss mdinare fasisis napirze, aresis WalaSi, did muxaze miuCina adgili. aresi berZnuli miTologiis Tanaxmad, omis RmerTi _ romauli marsia.
    brZolis RvTaebis Tayvaniscemis adgilad iTvleboda mcxeTa, farnavazidan moyolebuli vidre qarTvelT ganmamnaTlebel wminda ninos mosvlamde. mosaxleoba armazs, igive xeTur armas (mTvaris RvTaeba) scemd Tayvans, romelic aseve brZolis RmerTad moiazreboda (razec metyvelebs Tavad armazis kerpis meomari RvTaebis aRwerilobac). amdenad, miTiuri aresis Walisa da mcxeTis istoriuli warsuli da adgilebis toponimika: armazis mTa, zadeni_zedazeni (sakerpe adgils niSnavs) metyveli dadasturebaa igiveobisa.

 

oqros sawmisis” miTologiur saxismetyvelebaSi gancxadebulia aseve umaRlesi saidumlo, romelic qristianobis ideologiis arssa da safuZvels warmoadgens. gvelma, romelmac adami evas saSualebiT acduna da wminda saunjis dakargviT mTeli kacobrioba gansacdelSi Caagdo, RvTisave daSvebiT, kvlav daibrunebda pirvelsawyiss. borotebis sawyisi, gvelis saxiT, damarcxdeboda dedakacis (medeas) daxmarebiT da mamakaci (iasoni) kvlav eziareboda adamis dacemuli bunebis aRdgenas.
       rac Seexeba muxis xis ikonografias, sicocxlis, siZlieris simboloa da saqarTvelos alegoriul saxes warmoadgens (Sdr. ”mumli muxasa”, sadac muxa alegoriuli saxea saqarTvelosi, xolo mumli _ mtrisa). muxis xe prototipia sidonias saflavze amosuli kviparosisa, romelmac saswaulebrivi Zala SeiZina da ”cocxal svetad” sveticxovlad iqca. orive SemTxvevaSi sicocxlis xis kultTan gvaqvs kavSiri da ”Arbor mund”-is koncefcias ukavSirdeba.
    sainteresoa svidas leqsikonis ganmarTeba. antikur, elinistur da bizantiur wyaroebze dayrdnobiT X saukuneSi Sedgenili ganmartebiTi leqsikonis Tanaxmad oqros bewviani sawmisi, romelic argonavtebma kolxeTSi, moipoves, movlenis poeturad gadmocemuli alegoriuli formaa.
    
amdenad, miTis “oqros sawmisis” saxismetyveleba aris winaswarmetyveleba macxovris gankacebisa, adamis codvis sanacvlod misi zvarakad Sewirvisa da wminda kvarTis saqarTveloSi davanebisa. aTaswleulebis win nawinaswarmetyvelebi axda, swored uflis kvarTi gaxda qristianuli saqarTvelos wminda saunje da keTildReobis garanti, iseve rogorc “oqros sawmisi” iyo garanti kolxTa Zlevamosilebisa da keTildReobisa.  yovelive es ki “argonavtikaSi” asaxulia alegoriuli saxiT, rac ase axasiaTebs religiur da miTologiur azrovnebas. simboloebiT xelSesaxebi saxe eZleva imas rac iluzorulia. igi erTaderTi universaluri enaa, romelic saSualebas iZleva sakraluri samyaros gadmocemisa. amitomac miiCneva, rom RvTis arsis Sesaxeb saubari mxolod simbolur da metaforul formebSia SesaZlebeli. ufalic xom araerTgzis mimarTavda am xerxs da msmenels igavebiT esaubreboda.
       Tqven mogecaT RvTis sasufevelTa codna, _ eubneba ieso mowafeebs, xolo sxvebs igavebiT eTqmis. “amisaTvis igaviT vetyvi maT, rameTu hxedven da ara hxedven, esmis da ara esmis, arca gu _ lis xma _ yvian.(maTe. XIII. 11-13).


                                     lela  arboliSvili




                                                                         




რელიგიური იდეოლოგიის სიმბოლური გააზრება ელინისტური ხანის დაკრძალვის რიტუალში




adreelinisturi xanidan, micvalebulis dakrZalva inhumaciis wesiT farTod gavrcelebuli Cveulebaa saqarTveloSi. damarxvis aRniSnuli tradicia arqeologiur literaturaSi pirobiTad, qvevrsamarxTa saxeliT aris cnobili.
vinaidan, dakrZalvis rituali pirdapir kavSirSia sazogadoebis religiur msoflmxedvelobasTan da saukuneTa manZilze Camoyalibebul rwmena-warmodgenasTan mniSvnelobas iZens qvevrsamarxTa simbolikis ideologiuri arsi.
termini “simbolo (Sumbolon) berZnuli warmoSobisaa da niSnavs niSs, xats, saxes, garkveuli ideis gamomxatvel gamoTqmas. yovel epoqaSi specifiuri, ganumeorebeli formiT gvevlineba simboluri anu cnebiTi azrovneba. masSi irekleba epoqebis religiuri, miTosuri da xelovnebismieri memkvidreoba.
qvevrsamarxebidan momdinare masala mniSvnelovan informacias Seicavs qarTvelur tomebSi gabatonebuli msoflmxedvelobisa da religiuri mrwamsis Sesaxeb. dasaflavebis arcerTi sxva romelime wesi mTel saqarTveloSi, simboluri TvalsazrisiT, ar aris imdenad datvirTuli da metyveli, rogorc qvevrsamarxebi. amdenad, vecdebiT elinisturi xanis qvevrsamarxebidan momdinare nivTieri masalis fonze, eTnografiul masalaze dayrdnobiT, gavacocxloT epoqa, romelic metyveli mematianea qarTuli tradiciuli msoflmxedvelobisa.
qvevrsamarxTa samarovnis gegmidan naTlad Cans, rom samarxad gamoyenebuli qvevrebi Tanabrad ki ar aris ganawilebuli, aramed, calkeul jgufebad an budeebadaa mofantuli sxva tipis samarxebs Soris da marnis asociacias iwvevs.
vidre uSualod qvevrsamarxTa simboloebis identifikaciis sakiTxs  SevexebiT, vnaxoT qvevrisa da marnis sakraluri daniSnuleba.
adreelinisturi xanidan marani keriis funqciebs iTvisebs da ikavebs mis, rogorc samlocvelo-religiuri daniSnulebis obieqtis adgils. keriasTan an mis axlos micvalebulis dasaflavebis faqti ukve paleoliTidanaa cnobili, xolo antikur xanaSi keriasTan dafiqsirebulia ormosamarxebi, an ormosamarxebTan gangeb, xelovnuradaa mowyobili da gadmotanili keriebi.
marani qarTvelTa rwmena-warmodgeniT wminda adgilad iTvleboda, igi saTayvanebel adgilad yurZnisa da Rvinis wyalobiT iqca. uZvelesi rwmenis Tanaxmad, vazi da venaxi nayofierebis simbolos warmoadgenda, yurZeni da yurZnis wveni wminda Sesawirs. pirvelnawur Sesawir Rvinos zedaSes uwodebdnen. maranSi zedaSiT savse qvevrebi Cafluli iyo cal-calke yvela salocavis saxelze, romelic mxolod garkveul dResaswaulsa Tu RvTaebis locvas unda moxmareboda. aRniSnuli tradicia dResac cocxalia. maranSi sruldeboda locvebi, ewyoboda naTloba, jvriswera da ikvleboda Sesawiravi cxovelebic.
marani specialur literaturaSi zogadqarTul terminadaa miCneuli da rogorc leqsikografosebi ganmartaven saRvine anu Rvinis Sesanax saxls niSnavs. sityva “marnis” fuZe “mari”, rogorc fiqroben igive samarxia, xoisia (romelSic 10 qsesti eteva). an mTliani xisgan gamoTlili WurWeli, romelSic gardacvlils krZalavdnen. sityva “mari”-dan unda warmomdgariyo Semdgom marxva, samare, samarxi _ Senaxvis, daflvis mniSvnelobiT da xmarebaSi unda Semosuliyo mas Semdeg, rac micvalebulis izolireba dainerga wesad, maTi CasvenebiT raime WurWelSi, romelic SeiZleba damzadebuliyo qvisgan, Tixisgan an xisgan [11. 15].
simboluri datvirTvis matarebelia qvevrSi micvalebulis embrionis pozaSi dakrZalva, TaviT qvevris pirisaken. dakrZalvis aRniSnuli wesi saSvilosnos saSos imitaciad ganisazRvreba, xolo samarxad gamoyenebul qvevrs nayofierebis, mudmivi ganaxlebis ideasTan akavSireben [3,105; 26,222].
sulieri adamianis rwmeniT, fizikuri mokvdineba warmavlobis sikvdilia mxolod da Sobaa maradisobaSi, am wesiT alegoriuli datvirTva eZleva sikvdilisa da kvlav Sobis uwyveti ciklis gamoxatulebas, rac arqauli rwmena-warmodgeniT faqtiurad erTi da igive procesia, radgan dabadebis da gardacvalebis gza urTierTmonacvleobaa, romelic garesamyarodan SinaSi midis da piriqiT. moCvenebiTi, warmavlobis samyarodan gardacvalebis Semdeg suli brundeba saiqioSi. identuria qvevrsamarxebis simbolos filosofiuri gagebac, rom Tu dabadeba saaqaoSi, profanul sivrceSi Semosvlis mauwyebelia, romelic saSos saSualebiT xorcieldeba, gardacvaleba sulier samyaroSi Sobaa. simbolur saxed ki qvevria miCneuli, romelic saSos imitacias warmoadgens.
aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT metad sainteresoa somxeTis teritoriaze samarxad gamoyenebuli or qvevriani samarxebi, sadac qvevrebi  horizontalur mdgomareobaSi erTmaneTTan pirebiT arian SeerTebulni. micvalebuls aseT samarxSi Tavi erT qvevrSi aqvs, xolo fexebi meoreSi. aRniSnuli samarxebis simboluri datvirTva Zalze ukavSirdeba saerTo wveris mqone ori samkuTxedis arss, romelic dualisturi bunebis matarebeli unda yofiliyo. gamomdinare iqidan, rom samkuTxedi qalur sawyiss ukavSirdeboda da saSos aRmniSvnel niSnad gaiazreboda. ormag samkuTxeds funqciac ormagi ekisreboda: erTi samkuTxedi “Sobda” sicocxles, xolo meore, “saSoSi”, ukanve ibrunebda, raSic mdebareobda bunebis maradiuli kanonis sazrisi.
qvevris sakraluri mniSvneloba dasturdeba qarTul eTnografiul yofaSic. gaTxovili qalis anu rZlis salocavi lagvani iyo e.w. “sadabado” qvevri. “sadabados” gaTxovil qals “miuyvandnen” im SemTxvevaSi Tu iavadmyofebda da mas maranSi marxavdnen.
qvevrsamarxTa ritualuri ganlageba analogias amJRavnebs meRvineobis berZnul RvTaeba dionisesTan dakavSirebul kultmsaxurebasTan.
axal dawuruli Rvinis kurTxevisadmi iyo miZRvnili antikuri dionisuri anTesterionebis qvevrebis  ritualuri dResaswauli e.w. Puqoi-s. igi qvevrebis moyvanilobis miniaturuli WurWlisa da svetze Camokidebuli dionises niRabTan sruldeboda [7,43; O.C.D.1970,Dionisos].
samarx qvevrTa garSemo qvevrebis Semowyoba, romelic araerTgzis aris dadasturebuli qvevrsamarxTa samarovanze, SesaZloa miviCnioT, rogorc dionisesadmi miZRvnili ritualis Cutroi-is arsebobis dadastureba. aRniSnuli rituali gardacvlilis sulebisadmi iyo miZRvnili da uSualod samarxebze sruldeboda.
Tanamedrove miTologiuri kvlevis saerTo TvalsazrisiT, dionise aris simbolo adamianis umaRlesi “me”-si, romelic damkvidrebulia qvena bunebaSi da iRviZebs sulSi, xolo “Rvino”, “yurZnis sisxli” simboloa sulieri WeSmaritebisa, romelic bangavs da auZlurebs qvena bunebas, raTa aRorZindes sulSi amoZravebuli RvTaebrivi sawyisi, romelic iltvis Tavisi WeSmariti wyarosken, Tavisi pirvelsawyisisaken. aqve unda SevniSnoT, rom orfikul moZRvrebaSi, mistiuri dionises kultTan iyo dakavSirebuli kvercxis formis gamosaxulebebi, rogorc pirvelsawyisis simbolo. am mimarTebiT yuradsaRebia, rom qvevrsamarxebad gamoiyeneboda kvercxis formis e.w. garsdinebadi qvevrebi.
qvevrsamarxebSi dadasturebuli inventaridan TvalSisacemia saRvine da sasmisi WurWlis simravle da mravalferovneba, rogoricaa: dabali da maRalyeliani xeladebi, samtuCapiriani doqebi, konusurZiriani WiWla, fialebi Tu finjnebi. isini moTavsebulia rogorc samarx qvevrSi ise mis gareT, qvevris kedelTan, an orive SemTxvevaSi.
sasmisi WurWlis aseTi simravlis mizezis asaxsnelad, mniSvnelovnad migvaCnia gardacvalebis aRmniSvneli megruli termini “Rura” (“doRuru”), romlis etimologiac ukavSirdeba Rvras/daRvras. aRniSnuli terminis, amgvari idenTifikacia imis saSualebas iZleva, rom sikvdili, rogorc movlena, sisxlis cirkulaciis ideasTan da mis daRvrasTan iqnes gaigivebuli [17,154]. e.i. aRniSnulidan gamomdinarea, rom uZvelesi sakraluri filosofiis Tanaxmad kvdoma iwyeba maSin, rodesac sxeuli sisxlisgan, sicocxlis wyarosgan iwyebs daclas, rac srul SesabamisobaSia realobasTan.
rogorc Cans, micvalebulisTvis samarxSi Cayolebuli sasmisebi simbolurad unda ukavSirdebodes daRvrili macocxlebeli siTxis kvlav Sesmis Tu Sevsebis ideas. aRniSnuli rwmenis Tanaxmad, WurWlis saSualebiT unda ganxorcielebuliyo Rvinis Sesma, romelic yovelTvis sisxlTan asocirdeboda.
aqve gavixsenoT macxovris sityvebi, saidumlo serobaze warmoTqmuli: “ese ars Cemi sisxli axali aRTqmisa, mravalTaTvis daRvrili codvaTa misateveblad” (maTe. 20, 28).
SemTxveviTi arc is unda iyos, rom samarovnebidan momdinare saRvine WurWlis absoluturi umravlesoba wiTeli saRebaviT aris SeRebili.
zemoaRniSnuli rwmenis gadmonaSTad SeiZleba miviCnioT dResac arsebuli Cveuleba _ saflavze wiTeli Rvinis daRvrisa, romelic gansakuTrebiT sayovelTao xasiaTs atarebs aRdgomis brwyinvale dResaswaulis dros. rac swored kvlav aRdgomis anu daRvrili sisxlis xelaxla Sesmis ideas unda emsaxurebodes. aRniSnuli tradicia, rogorc Cans adreqristianulia, Tumca dRes igi srul SesabamisobaSia qristianul ideologiasTan.
mkveTrad simbolizirebulia samarovnebidan momdinare sxa inventaric.
samarxebSi mravladaa cxovelTa da frinvelTa (lomi, gveli, ixvi) gamosaxulebiani samajurebi, romlebic ormxrivprotomiania. es motivi dadasturebulia materialuri kulturis sxvadasxva nimuSebze, rogoricaa Wviruli balTebi, Standartebi, saiuveliro nivTebi da kolxuri monetebic ki.
xsenebuli samajurebi udavod unda ganvixiloT micvalebulis kultTan kavSirSi. rameTu aRiarebulia, rom uZvelesi samkaulebi mxolod dekoratiuli, uSinaarso nivTebi ki ara, aramed religiuri mniSvnelobis matarebelnic iyvnen. saiqio am realiis mixedviT, saaqaos gadabrunebuli aslia, Tavisi patroniTa da binadrebiT.
gaxsnili, gvelis TavebiT damSvenebuli samajurebi jerkidev adrerkinis xanaSi Canan CvenSi gavrcelebuli da maTi, zogjer saxecvlili formebi antikur xanaSic gvxvdeba. yvelaze adreulia e.w. oTxdrakoniani samajurebi.
gveli igive gveleSapi (didi gveli) simboluri saxea qvesknelisa, amasTan xsenebul qvewarmavals miTologiuri TvalsazrisiT, ganZis mcvelis funqciac gaaCnia. gamomdinare aqedan, gvelisTavebiani samajuris alegoriuli asaxva SeiZleba ganvmartoT: rom micvalebuli, romelic qvesknelSi, sxvadasxva samyaroTa gzagasayarze imyofeba gveleSapi mfarvelobs, rogorc saganZurs. amis safuZvels isic iZleva, rom saflavs, rogorc kosmosis sxvadasxva donis, sxvadasxva samyaroebis Sexvedris, gadakveTis adgils transcendentur sivrces, gansakuTrebuli religiuri mniSvneloba eniWeboda. saflavi samyaros “centris” aRmniSvnelia. mas rogorc kosmizirebul sivrces Tavisi centri gaaCnia gardacvlilis saxiT, ramdenadac centri uzrunvelyofs kavSirs kosmiur doneebs Soris, SesaZlebels xdis arsebobis erTi saxidan meoreSi gadasvlas. “centrSi” xdeba SesaZlebeli urTierTobis damyareba, rogorc zecasTan, ise infernalur samyarosTan. centri aramxolod sawyisi wertilia, aramed dasasrulsac gamoxatavs, radgan yovelive misgan gamomdinareobs da masve ubrundeba.
garda amisa, araerTi uZvelesi miwaTmoqmedi xalxis msoflmxedvelobaSi gveli dakavSirebulia nayofierebis qtonur ZalebTan da qalur simbolikasTan.
dedamiwis qtonur simbolikasTan iyo gaigivebuli universaluri  qalRvTaeba, romelic apolonios rodoselis gadmocemiT kolxTa erT-erTi saficaria, uranosTan (zecasTan) erTad da RmerTebis dedad (qewn  mήter) iwodeba (apo.Rhod. Argonautica, III.714-716). bunebis didi deda, romelic nayofierebis uzenaes deda RvTaebad moiazreboda iyo miwaTmoqmedebisa da pirutyvTa mfarveli.
ganviTarebis garkveul etapze didi dedis saxeSi xdeba sxvadasxva sawyisebis gaerTianeba da zoomorfuli RvTaebebis gadaqceva mis aucilebel atributad.
adgilis dedis kavSiri miwasTan, qtonur samyarosTan gamoixateboda RvTaebis damxmare Zalad gvelis yolaSi an sakuTriv am RvTaebis gvelis saxiT warmodgenaSi.
dadasturebulia aseve RmerTebis didi dedis kultis Serwyma mzis RvTaebasTan, romlis atributs da erT-erT wminda cxovels lomi warmoadgenda.
nayofierebis RvTaebas ukavSirdebian agreTve Zvel samyaroSi wylis frinvelebi, maT Soris ixvebic. qvevrsamarxebSi dadasturebulia, rogorc ixvis formis skulpturuli gamosaxulebebiT Semkuli samajurebi, ise ixvis formis zoomorfuli Tixis WurWelic.
religiuri TvalsazrisiT yuradRebas ipyrobs samarovnebidan momdinare moxatuli WurWeli. aRsaniSnavia qocos tipis WurWeli dafnaris qvevrsamarxTa samarovnidan, romelic bavSvis dasakrZalad iyo gamoyenebuli (qvevrsamarxi #31). aRniSnuli mcire zomis qvevri Savzedapiriania da mxrebis areSi mdidrulad aris Semkuli sxvadasxva geometriuli figurebiT, amasTan datanilia wminda cxovelTa saweso wriuli svla. msvlelobas saTaveSi udgas ulayi. aqvea, irmisa da mgel-ZaRlis (mwevari) gamosaxulebac.
ulayi da iremi mzis kults ukavSirdeba, xolo mgel-ZaRlis, mwevaris gamosaxuleba, romlis ikonografiac gvianbrinjaos xanidan aris cnobili, uzenaesi RvTaebis msaxurad aris gansazRvruli. wminda cxovelTa wriuli svla dakavSirebulia eTnografiul sinamdvileSi samegreloSi dadasturebul “mesefobasTan”, romelic Semodgomaze, oqtomberSi imarTeboda. mesefebi zRvaSi cxovrobdnen da xalxis warmodgeniT warmarTavdnen cxovelTa, frinvelTa da qvewarmavalTa mTel samyaros maT hyavdaT ZaRlebic.
dafnars garda aseTi gamosaxulebebiT Semkuli qvevrebis fragmentebi dadasturebulia dablagomis samarovanze da vanis naqalaqarze. rogorc miiCneven, isini sagangebod mzaddeboda da zedaSes Sesanaxad gamoiyeneboda [3,100; 23].
cxeni qarTuli miTo-ritualuri sistemis erT-erTi mTavari personaJia, romelic sxvadasxva konteqstSi gvxvdeba. yvelaze xSirad ki dakrZalvis ritualSi. wesad iyo micvalebulisTvis cocxali cxenis an cxenis qandakebebis Catareba. rwmena-warmodgenis Tanaxmad cxeni micvalebuls saiqioSi samogzaurod esaWiroeboda, misi saSualebiT xdeboda gardacvlilis sulis gadasvla saaqaodan saiqioSi. samegreloSi, sadac dakrZalvis rituali gansakuTrebiT mZafri da TvalsaCinoa dadasturebulia sulis cxenTan dakavSirebuli ritualebi. aseTi rituali aqvs aRwerili XVIIs-is italiel misioners arqanjelo lambertsac.
am ritualebis mixedviT, samsxverplo cxeni dakavSirebulia samyaros xesTan an Tavad ganasaxierebs samyaros xes. sakraluri simbolizmis enaze: samyaros centrsa da mis RerZs, romelzedac gadaadgilebaa SesaZlebeli. “zRurblis” gadalaxvaSi gardacvlils “sulis cxeni” da cxenmxedari marula exmareboda. micvalebulis pativsacemad imarTeboda “zRurblis gadalaxvis” ritualebic, rogoricaa cxenmxedarTa srbola _ “marula” da “yabaxi”. aRniSnuli ritualebiT xdeboda ilustracia axlad gardacvlili sulis saiqioSi mogzaurobisa, romlis mixedviT gardacvlils mgebrebTan (gardacvlil axlobelTa sulebi) erTad cocxlebic miacilebdnen [17,157-163].
Arbor mundi”-is idea ucxo ar aris qvevrsamarxTa samarovnebidan momdinare masalisTvisac. farakiani beWdebi dafiqsirebulia: dablagomis, batnaoxurus, dafnaris, farcxanayanevis, zemofarcxmis, wifnaris, noqalaqevis, yazbegis arqeologiur masalaSi. sabeWdav beWdebze amoWrilia uzurgo skamsa Tu taxtze mjdomi adamianis figura, romelsac idayvSi moxril marjvena xelSi, piris doneze, saxidan daSorebiT fiala ukavia. adamianis win da ukan erTiani jiSis TiTo xe, kviparosia gamosaxuli.
nayofierebis ideasTan da qtonur kultebTan aris dakavSirebuli solaruli niSnebi: iribi jvari da svastika, romelic magiuri daniSnulebis mqone mzis simboluri niSania.
svastikiani qvevrebi aRmoCenilia dablagomSi, dafnarSi, zemo farcxmaSi. aRniSnuli niSani qvevrebs garda, gvxvdeba amforebze, doqebze. iribjvriani qvevri dasturdeba noqalaqevSi.
 jvari da svastika, romelic jvris principzea agebuli arqaul xanaSi udidesi mniSvnelobis mqone, kosmogoniuri koncefciis matarebeli simbolo iyo.
jvari qveynierebis aRmniSvnel umTavres simbolod iqna miCneuli. igi warmoadgens samyaros agebulebis rogorc vertikalur ise horizontalur struqturas. xazebis gadakveTisas zustad aris dafiqsirebuli centri, romelic mianiSnebs oTx umTavresi mimarTulebis arsebobas. mbrunavi jvari (svastika) ki sruliad avlens arqaul cnobierebaSi moqmedi droisa da sivrcis qronotipis erTianobas. es niSani warmoadgens rogorc centris garSemo kargad organizebul sivrces, aseve masSi aisaxeba magiuri wris pirvelsqema, maradiuli ganmeorebis, drois civilurobis umniSvnelovanesi idea [4,136].
dablagomisa da wifnaris qvevrsamarxebze gvxvdeba mamlis gamosaxulebebi. zogierTi mkvlevari svastikas mamlis stilizebul gamosaxulebadac ki miiCnevs, vinaidan borjRalis msgavsad mamalic erTi mxriv mzis frinvelia, xolo, meore mxriv, qarTuli eTnografiuli masalebiT mWidrod Cans dakavSirebuli qtonur, kerZod nayofierebisa da micvalebulis kultTan [25,214]. eTnografiul sinamdvileSi moiZebneba amis damadasturebeli magaliTebi.
imereTSi, axali wlis wina dRes, maranSi, qvevris Tavze mamlisaTvis unda waeglijaT Tavi, xolo sisxli venaxSi moepkurebinaT. mamlis msxverplad Sewirvis Semdeg RmerTs venaxis karg msxmoiarobas SesTxovdnen. samegreloSi ki, mgloviarobis periodSi gardacvlilis cxenis win mamals swiravdnen sulis gadamtan RmerTebs.
samyaros agebulebis universaluri idea, romlis mixedviT vertikalur xazze organizebuli samyaro horizontalurad iyo ganfenili, materialuri kulturis Zeglebze sxvadasxva saxis simboloebiT gadmoicemoda. am TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa qvevrsamarxTa ganlageba. qvevrebi Cadgmulia, rogorc vertikalur ise horizontalur mdgomareobaSi. savaraudoa, rom qvevrebis aseTi ganlageba praqtikulTan erTad filosofiuri mosazrebiTac unda yofiliyo gansazRvruli.
Zalzed sainteresoa arqaul cnobierebaSi ori dapirispirebuli mdgomareobis kosmosisa da qaosis urTierT mimarTeba. usistemo da uwesrigo qaosisagan gansxvavebiT kosmosSi aucilebeli wesrigi unda arsebuliyo. qaosis damarcxeba, wesrigis gamarjveba, amasTan sikvdilisagan axali sicocxlis aRorZineba, sikeTisa da sinaTlis damkvidreba mxolod brZoliT iyo SesaZlebeli da am umniSvnelovanesi kosmogoniuri koncefciis saxviTi xati brZolis scenebSi iyo gadmocemuli.
siuJetis ikonografiis TvalsazrisiT sagulisxmoa sof. arkneTSi vasasi wyaros samarovnidan momdinare sabeWdavi beWdebis gemmebi. erT maTganze mocemulia nadirobis scena. monadire zis cxenze da ze apyrobil xelSi Subi uWiravs, romelsac yalyze Semdgar loms styorcnis. Subi loms wina TaTSi moxvedria.
meore sabeWdavze gamosaxulia kompozicia, sadac warmodgenilia iremi, romeli ukan iyureba. igi loms gaurbis. loms marcxena TaTi irmis zurgze aqvs CaWidebuli.
orive SemTxvevaSi asaxulia brZola, romelic kosmogoniuri aqtis Cvenebas isaxavs miznad. xelovnebis Zeglebze asaxuli cxovelTa brZola, RvTaebrivi nadiroba, urCxulis an veSapis damarcxeba, romelic qaoss ganasaxierebs, yovlismomcveli kosmogoniuri ideis simbolod gaiazreboda [4, 180-182].
uZvelesi miTo-filosofiuri msofmxedvelobiT, qaosTan, borot ZalasTan brZola aris ziareba maradiul sulTan, uzenaes yofasTan. amis aucileblobas ganapirobebs grZnobadi samyaro, amqveyniuri yofa, warmavlobis sfero, romelic simbolizirebulia mravlobiTobis (ganyofis) saxiT.
sulieri ganviTarebis, mravlobiTobis ideas emsaxureba araerTi miTiuri personaJis qmedeba, rogoricaa medeas mier afsirtes anakuweba da zRvaSi Cayra. tifonis mier osirisis 14 nawilad dakepa, titanebis mier dionises nawilebad gagleja, aseve wm. giorgis sxeulis 365 nawilad danawevreba da sxva.
adamianis mokvla da danawevreba miTologiuri msoflmxedvelobis Tanaxmad, erTi cxovrebis mraval nawilad dayofas da axal sicocxleSi integrirebas warmoadgens, swored es aris uzenaesi yofa, iniciaciis gza.
Tumca ganyofis Teoriis simbolizireba mxolod am saxiT ar gadmoicemoda. mcenareul doneze mas Seesabameba marcvali, romelic daTesvamde winaswar unda daifSvnas, danawevrdes, sanam mravalSi regenerirdeba. mravlobiTobis simboloa mravalmarcvliani broweulic, romelic igema persefonem qvesknelidan amosvlis win da ase Semdeg.
Cven SemTxvevaSi aRniSnuli ideis simbolur ilustracias warmoadgens qvevrsamarxebSi dadasturebuli specialurad danawevrebuli WurWeli da ganzrax dazianebuli nivTebi, romelic dadasturebulia noqalaqevSi (qvevrsamarxi #3).
mravlobiTobis gamomxatvel simbolod sCans gasaazrebeli minis, pastis da qvis mZivebis simravle, romelic dafiqsirebulia uklebliv yvela qvevrsamarxSi, Cvil bavSvebTanac ki. mZivebi gamoirCevian didi mravalferovnebiT da zog samarxSi qaosuradaa mimofantuli.
mZivebi, iseve rogorc sayure da saTiTe rgolebi, romlebic asave uxvadaa samarxebSi da imdenad identuria, rom maTi garCeva mxolod adgil-mdebareobis mixedviT aris SesaZlebeli imave ideas, kosmogoniuri arqetipuli aqtis reaqtualizacias unda axdendes da samyaros xelaxla Seqmnas unda gulisxmobdes.
mZivebTan kavSirSi sayuradRebo paraleli iZebneba eTnografiul sinamdvileSic.
samegreloSi, micvalebulis saxelze sruldeboda rituali, romelsac “mowanua” ewodeba. ormocis gadaxdis Semdeg “Seyraze” Savgadafarebul xars an Zroxas (imis mixedviT Tu vin iyo gardacvlili qali Tu mamakaci) rqebze anTebul sanTlebTan erTad Tav-kiserze ramdenime asxma wabls hkidebdnen. pirutyvs ezoSi gauSvebdnen da xalxi wabls Semoaclida [17,160].
amdenad naTelia, rom simbolo komunikaciis kodificirebuli saxe iyo da adamianSi Tanaziarebis gancdis gamomwvev uZlieres afeqtur saSualebas warmoadgenda.
rogorc damarxvis wesidan, ise inventaris Semadgenlobidan naTlad Cans, rom samarxTa gansxvavebuli tipebis miuxedavad elinisturi epoqis sazogadoeba erTi religiuri ideologiis aRmsarebelia, gansxvaveba mxolod mrwamsis gamoxatvis simbolur gaazrebaSia.
qvevrsamarxSi micvalebuli Cveulebisamebr Zlier moxril mdgomareobaSi, muxlmokecili esvena _ xelebi nikapTan axlos, marcxena an marjvena gverdze, rogorc Cans sqesis gaTvaliswinebiT. aseT mdgomareobaSi micvalebulis dakrZalva dasaflavebis tradiciul wess Seesabameba, vinaidan aseTsave pozaSi imarxebodnen elinisuri epoqis winare xanis  ormosamarxebsa Tu qvevrsamarxebSi da qvevrsamarxebis Tanadroul sxva tipis samarxebSic. msgavsia samarovnebidan momdinare inventaric, romelic warmodgenilia oqros, vercxlis, brinjaos da rkinis samkaulebis saxiT.
mzgavsi religiuri ideologiis aRmsareblobas mowmobs is garemoebac, rom rogorc ki daiwyes micvalebulis gaSotil mdgomareobaSi dakrZalva gaqra qvevrsamarxebic.
    bunebis Zalebi, ciuri mnaTobebi, cxovelebi, mcenareebi, frinvelebi Tu adamianebi Tanabari ZaliT monawileobdnen samyaroSi mimdinare procesebSi. TiToeul am xats polisemantikuri mniSvneloba hqonda miniWebuli da zogadad erTian samyaros gadmogvcemda, magram yovel kerZo SemTxvevaSi, samyaros im aspeqts warmoadgenda, romlis Cvenebac swored maSin iyo aucilebeli.
elinisturi xanis saqarTveloSi srulad iqna gaziarebuli religiuri ideologiis simboluri azrovnebis universaluri idea, rasac kargad asaxavs goeTes cnobili sentencia “yovelive warmavali simboloa mxolod”.
koncefcia ori samyaros Sesaxeb, romelTagan erTi sinamdvilea, meore ki moCvenebiToba, warmavloba, gansakuTrebiT TvalsaCinoa dakrZalvis ritualiSi, romlis mkveTrad simbolizirebuli xati qvevrsamarxTa kulturaSi gamovlinda.


lela arboliSvili

gamoyenebuli literatura

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